High temperatures threaten balsamic vinegars in Italy

Reginald SmithBalsamic Vinegar, Microbiology, Vinegar Industry0 Comments

A recent story in the vinegar world of Italy is the effect of extended record high temperatures on traditional balsamic vinegar makers in Modena and Reggio Emilia. In particular, the ‘il caldo africano’, a heavy, hot wind that blows into Italy from North Africa, has set record high temperatures for weeks of July and August. This is not as much … Read More

Temperature and Speed for Bacterial Fermentation

Reginald SmithMaking Vinegar, Microbiology0 Comments

Much of the food we love to ferment is fermented by bacteria. Obviously vinegar, which my company is dedicated to, is a prime example with several families of acetic acid bacteria contributing depending on the method of vinegar fermentation, acidity, and starter alcohol. For a variety of fermented foods, however, lactic acid fermentation by various lactic acid bacteria is primary. … Read More